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Ano po ba ang ibig sabihin
ng jointly and solidarily liable?

Atty. AGA
 

Dear Atty. AGA,


Bago ang lahat ay ipinaaabot ko sa inyo ang aking taos-pusong pangungumusta at sa lahat ng mga kasama ninyo. Isang mapagpalang araw po sa inyo.


Narito po ako ngayon sa aming probinsiya at nagbabakasyon. Ako po ay kakatapos lamang ng kontrata bilang OFW sa ibang bansa. Doon po sa ibang bansa ay uso sa aming mga OFW ang magtulungan kapag nagigipit po ang kapwa OFW. Ako po ay isa sa mga tumulong sa aking kaibigan nang siya ay nagipit dahil sa pangangailangang maipaospital ang anak nito.


Last March lamang po ay mayroon akong pinirmahan na ang nakasulat po sa itaas ng aming agreement ay “guarantor’s undertaking”. Ngunit sa kabuuan po ng agreement, may nakasaad na ako raw po at ang aking kaibigang OFW ay “jointly and solidarily liable” sa nautang ng aking kaibigan.


Atty. Aga, ano po ba ang ibig sabihin ng aking pinasukang pananagutan sa utang ng aking kaibigan?


Hanggang sa muli po.
Lubos na nagpapasalamat,
Gina

 

Sa kabila ng pagtawag sa inyong agreement na “Guarantor’s Undertaking”, the body of your agreement specifically provides that you and your friend are “jointly and severally liable” sa financial obligation. Kung kaya ang pananagutan mo ay solidary with the debtor at ikaw ay mananagot bilang isang surety.


Sa kasong International Finance Corporation vs. Imperial Textile Mills Inc., G.R. NO. 160324, November 15, 2005, pinagtibay ng ating Korte Suprema na, “Initially, ITM was a stranger to the Loan Agreement between PPIC and IFC.  ITM’s liability commenced only when it guaranteed PPIC’s obligation.  It became a surety when it bound itself solidarily with the principal obligor.  Thus, the applicable law is as follows:


“Article 2047.  By guaranty, a person, called the guarantor binds himself to the creditor to fulfill the obligation of the principal in case the latter should fail to do so.


“If a person binds himself solidarily with the principal debtor, the provisions of Section 4, Chapter 3, Title I of this Book shall be observed.  In such case, the contract shall be called suretyship.”


Ang isang kontrata na denominated as “guarantor’s agreement” ngunit ang stipulations ng agreement ay nagsasaad na ang liability ng “guarantor” ay solidary with the principal debtor, ay tinatawag na contract of suretyship. Ang pananagutan ng surety ay katulad ng pananagutan ng principal debtor sa isang pagkakautang.


In the case of International Finance Corporation, the Supreme Court further held as follows: “The Court does not find any ambiguity in the provisions of the Guarantee Agreement.  When qualified by the term “jointly and severally”, the use of the word “guarantor” to refer to a “surety” does not violate the law. 

As Article 2047 provides, a suretyship is created when a guarantor binds itself solidarily with the principal obligor.  Likewise, the phrase in the Agreement -- “as primary obligor and not merely as surety” -- stresses that ITM is being placed on the same level as PPIC.  Those words emphasize the nature of their liability, which the law characterizes as a suretyship.


xxx xxx xxx xxx


A surety is considered in law to be on the same footing as the principal debtor in relation to whatever is adjudged against the latter.


Gina, bilang isang surety, ang pananagutan mo sa utang ng iyong kaibigang OFW ay katulad ng principal debtor. Ikaw at ang kaibigan mo ay magkatulad ang liability. Sa gayon ay maaari kang masingil ng creditor directly.


The Supreme Court speaking in the International Finance Corporation case further held that : “Relevant to this case is Article 1216, which states: ‘The creditor may proceed against any one of the solidary debtors or some or all of them simultaneously.’ 


Pursuant to this provision, petitioner (as creditor) was justified in taking action directly against respondent.


***


Kung kayo ay may mga bagay na nais malaman o problemang nais na idulog, maaari kayong magsadya o sumulat sa aming tanggapan sa DZXL RMN MANILA sa Guadalupe Complex, 4th Floor, Guadalupe, EDSA, Makati City. 

Patuloy rin tayong makinig sa ating radio program, ITO ANG BATAS WITH ATTY. AGA, Lunes hanggang Biyernes, sa bagong time slot 4:00-5:00 pm, DZXL RMN Manila sa 558 khz or through live streaming at www.rmnnews.com/tv. Pwede ring mag-email sa agalaw@pldtdsl.net.
Lagi po nating tandaan, ITAGUYOD NATIN ANG LAKAS NG ATING BATAS!



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